The four temperaments : their strengths and weaknesses

The society is a conglomeration of so many people with varying characters and characteristics.Psychologist have postulated that a proper understanding of one’s own characters as well as that of others around you makes for perfect co- existence among humans

Colonel Zulfiguer Ahmed Amin of the American Armed Forces Medical Institute (AFMI), describes temperaments as the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual’s distinctive character. He further defines temperaments as a person’s particular set of enduring (Long Term) disposition (person’s qualities of mind and character) or long terms tendencies to think, feel, and act in particular ways.

While most persons,especially Nigerians, defines character traits in form of introversions and extroversions only. It is necessary to understand the broad combination of characters that makes up our behavioural patterns.

Here ,we explore the basic features of each of the four temperaments :sanguine, choleric, melancholic and phlegmatic.


People with this sanguine temperament tend to be lively sociable carefree, talkative and pleasure-seeking.They may be warm-hearted and optimistic. They can make new friends easily and Often are easily swayed or convinced. They are chronically late or forgetful.

Their strengths: are their sociability, charismatic personality and optimistic nature which tends to make them good orators and public speakers.

Their weaknesses: lies in their impulsive and shameless nature and they are very exaggerative in narrations as they always tend to paint every story with an interesting tone. They love making friends and can easily get depressed if their feelings are not reciprocated.

Examples of celebrities that are sanguine includes patience ozokwu (mama G), nkem owoh (ukwa) john okafor (ibu) chinedu ikedieze (pawpaw) donald trump, senator dino melaye, michael jordan, davido, Adah ameh ushbebe, broda shaggy, craze clownetc


People with the choleric temperament are egocentric and extroverted. They may be impulsive and restless as well as aggressive and energized and they always try to instill this characters on others.

Cholerics are tasked oriented people and are focused on getting a job done effectively. They are often ambitious and like to be in charge, they can show leadership and are good planners. They appreciate receiving respect and esteem for their work.

Their strengths: Are their ambitious nature, passionate and efficient.

Their weaknesses: lies in their often aggressive, impatient and argumentative nature.

Examples of celebrities that are cholerics includes: zlatan ibrahimovic, vladmir putin, phyno, banky w, john terry, Christiano Ronaldo, muhammadu buhari, ngozi okonjo iweala, senator bukola saraki etc


Melancholics may appear serious, introverted, cautious and careful. They can become preoccupied with the tragedy and cruelty in the world and are susceptible to depression and moodiness. They often prefer to do things themselves, both to meet their often high standards and because they are not inherently sociable.

A melancholic hardly makes friends but can stick to a loyal friend for life. They are quiet and analytical.

Their strength: is in their often thoughtful, well organized and creative nature.

Their weaknesses: is that they are often perfectionist and can become obsessed with both animate and inanimate things.

Examples of celebrities that are melancholic are: warren buffet, Mark Zuckerberg, J.P morgan, mother theresa, lionel messi, senator david mark, professor yemi osibanjo, sanusi lamido sanusi, etc


Phlegmatics may be inward and private, thoughtful,reasonable, calm, patient, caring, and tolerant. They tend to have a rich inner life, seek a quiet, peaceful atmosphere and be content with themselves. They often are consistent in their habits with a stable routine. They often appear clumsy to others, most especially to the sanguines. They often pursue peace, are afraid of violence and gets along with all.

Their strength: is in their relaxed, kind and observant nature. They pay attention to details and can thus be very good partners with someone they bond with.

Their weakness: is in the fact that they are very shy and often avoid eye contact. They can be equally stubborn concerning what they believe in as they often resist change and can also be lazy.

Examples of celebrities who are phlegmatics includes: Bill gates, Walt Disney, margaret thatcher, Nikolai Tesla, ricardo kaka, carles puyol, asa, korede bello, olamide, sadio mane, andreas Christensen, chioma chukwuka, omotola jaladele, genevive nnaji, ramsey noah, Desmond elliot etc

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